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The current studies investigated whether persons who stutter (PWS) showed poor motor sequencing skill after practice and on dual tasks compared to fluent speakers (PNS). Studies 1 and 2 compared the speech and nonspeech motor sequencing performance of 9 PWS and 9 PNS over practice. Significant group differences were found in sequence reaction time after practice, and on retention and transfer tests. Study 3 was a replication of Study 2 (the speech sequencing study) with 12 PWS and 12 PNS. Data from Studies 1, 2, and 3 supported the interpretation that PWS were less able than PNS to improve sequence reaction time. PWS were slower on both finger tapping and syllable reading sequences compared to PNS, suggesting that differences were not limited to the speech system.Two follow-up studies investigated the relationship between early stage skill learning and automaticity in PWS. Study 4 investigated the transition to increased automaticity after practice by PWS on a nonspeech sequencing task using a dual-task paradigm. In this study, 12 PWS and 12 PNS completed finger tapping sequences alone (single task condition) and simultaneously with a colour monitoring task (dual task condition). In Study 5, 8 PWS and 8 PNS read aloud nonsense syllable sequences alone (single task condition) and simultaneously with a colour monitoring task (dual task condition). For both studies, each group"s speed and accuracy of sequencing performance were compared in each of the two conditions. Compared to the PNS, PWS demonstrated significantly slower performance after practice in the single task finger tapping condition, but not in the syllable reading condition. Studies 4 and 5 single condition results were comparable to the results of Study 1. PWS were also significantly less accurate under dual task conditions for both the finger tapping and the syllable reading experiments relative to PNS. This result suggested that the performance of PWS reflected significantly reduced automaticity development over practice relative to PNS. Deficits in sequence skill learning and automaticity development may represent important etiological components in the development and maintenance of stuttering.
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The basal ganglia and cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical connections are known to play a critical role in sequence skill learning and increasing automaticity over practice. The current paper reviews four studies comparing the sequence skill learning and the transition to automaticity of persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) over by: The transition to increased automaticity during finger sequence learning in adult males who stutter QUESTIONS 1. Automaticity can be defined as a. the level of conscious awareness of a particular stimulus. b. a gradient measure of the level of attention required to perform a task. c. a qualitative measure of how much physical effort is Cited by: Originary neurogenic, non-syndromatic stuttering has been linked to a dysfunctional sensorimotor system. Studies have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) perform poorly at speech and finger motor tasks and learning (e.g., Smits-Bandstra et al., b; Namasivayam and van Lieshout, ). The high relapse rate after stuttering treatment could be a further hint for deficient motor Author: Alexandra Korzeczek, Joana Cholin, Annett Jorschick, Manuel Hewitt, Martin Sommer. The current paper reviews four studies comparing the sequence skill learning and the transition to automaticity of persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) over practice.
Automaticity refers to cognitive processing that requires few mental resources and describes both processes that are innately or spontaneously effortless as well as those that engage fewer resources following practice or refers to cognitive processing that has reached a high level of competence and mastery as a result of experience and investment. Argues that automaticity and skill are closely related but are not identical. Automatic processes are components of skill, but skill is more than the sum of the automatic components. The current paper reviews four studies comparing the sequence skill learning and the transition to automaticity of persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) View The role of. Skill Acquisition Theory, is not just a theory of the development of language, rather it is a general theory of learning ranging from cognitive to psychomotor skills (Mystkowska-Wiertelak & Pawlak.
The transition to increased automaticity during finger sequence learning in adult males who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 22‐ Smits‐Bandstra, S., De Nil, L. F., & Saint‐Cyr, J. A. (). Speech and nonspeech sequence skill learning in adults who stutter. Nonspeech sequence skill learning in adults who stutter. Sequence skill learning in persons who stutter: Implications for cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical dysfunction. The transition to increased automaticity during finger sequence learning in adult males who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31(1), 22– In line with this suggestion, studies have reported poorer speech sequence skill learning in adults who stutter (AWS) than in those who do not (ANS; Smits-Bandstra et al., b; Namasivayam and. Terry McMorris, in Exercise-Cognition Interaction, Automatic Tasks. We generally think of automaticity as referring to motor skills, probably because motor learning theorists such as Fitts and Posner () and Adams () saw automaticity as the final goal of skill acquisition. Automaticity can occur in cognitive skills as well. Skills learned implicitly are performed autonomously or.